Battery Consult AG builds on decades of experience gained during the development and production of the original Zebra battery. It designs, develops and tests new generations of batteries based on this proven sodium-metal-chloride technology.
The technology is explained with figure 1:
We have the feeling that God, when he created the world, already thought of the SaltBattery for electric energy storage. How, why else, could nature make all required ingredients available to us? These are:
A The reversible electrochemical reaction with high energy conversion rate without side-reactions
B The ceramic separator with high ionic conductivity by the Al2O3 β”-structure and
C The molten salt electrolyte NaAlCl4 with the low resistive conductivity for sodium ions Na+ inside the cathode and the sodium absorbing safety reaction in case of a ceramic break. By cooling below 157°C the battery can even be switched off and stored for an unlimited time.
How does it work?
The salt (2 NaCl) decomposes in the liquid electrolyte (NaAlCl4) to 2Na+ and 2 Cl– of which the 2 Cl– react with nickel (Ni) to form NiCl2 plus 2 electrons which are conducted to the positive pole. Then the 2 Na+ are conducted to the β”-Al2O3 wall through which they are conducted to the sodium side where they combine with the electrons on the higher potential of the inverter to form the negative pole. This is the charged state. During discharge this process is inverted.
In this way the following advantages for an electric energy storage battery are achieved:
- All raw materials are abundantly available
- Recycling of used batteries is ensured by using a cost-effective metallurgical process
- High energy density
- Highest level of safety
- Performance and durability independent of ambient temperature
- Various cell designs allow a wide range of applications
Some people regard the internal operating temperature of about 250°C (which is encapsulated in an excellent thermal isolation) as a disadvantage, but it enables operation independent of the ambient temperature and infinite storability in the cold state.
New Jersey Energy Storage Analysis (ESA) 2019 – excerpt on Sodium Nickel Chloride (ZEBRA) Batteries, Courtesy of Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey (https://www.rutgers.edu/)